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Packaging. Walnuts are packaged in, among other things, net bags (1.5 - 2.5 kg), polysacks (5 and 10 kg), cartons (10 kg) and flat jute fabric bags (55 kg). Shelled nuts are packaged in, among other things, boxes lined with parchment paper, each containing 12.5 kg (net). Walnut kernels are ideally stored at a water content of 2 - 3% in packaging which is impermeable to water vapor. Vacuum packaging excludes atmospheric oxygen, which promotes rancidity. Transport. General cargo Temperature-controlled Means of transport. Ship, railroad, truck, aircraft Container transport. Ventilated containers (coffee containers), if the lower limits set for the water content of goods, packaging and flooring and the oil content of the goods are complied with and if protection against solar radiation is ensured (risk of self-heating). Cargo handling. In damp weather (rain, snow), the cargo must be protected from moisture, since it may lead to mold, spoilage and self-heating as a result of increased respiratory activity. No hooks should be used with bagged cargo, so as to prevent damage to the bags and loss of volume. Stowage factor. 2.10 m3/t (flat jute fabric bags, 55 kg)  Stowage space requirements. Cool, dry, good ventilation Segregation. Fiber rope, thin fiber nets Cargo securing. In order to ensure safe transport, the bags/cartons must be stowed and secured in the means of transport in such a manner that they cannot slip or shift during transport. Attention must also be paid to stowage patterns which may be required as a result of special considerations, such as ventilation measures. In the event of loading as general cargo, dunnage should be used to protect against damage: Floor dunnage: criss-cross dunnage and packing paper Side dunnage: lining with wooden dunnage and mats or jute coverings: protection from metal parts of the ship, since traces of metal promote cargo rancidity due to autoxidation. Top dunnage: important for voyages to cold regions (winter), since sweat may drip onto the cargo. Risk factors and loss prevention. RF Temperature. Walnuts require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and ventilation conditions (SC VII) (storage climate conditions). For this reason, precise details should always be obtained from the consignor as to the travel temperature to be maintained. Designation Temperature range Favorable travel 5 - 25° C temperature range -3 - 0° C The stated temperature range of -3 - 0° C is the ideal temperature for achieving the longest possible storage life, but travel temperatures of 5 - 25° C are feasible, depending upon the duration of the voyage, so this product need not necessarily be carried as chilled goods. It must, however, be borne in mind that the storage life of the product is correspondingly reduced at temperatures higher than the above ideal temperature. Temperatures > 30°C must not prevail for a long period, as respiration of the cargo is otherwise promoted. Walnuts should not be stowed near heat sources (engine room bulkhead, heated tanks). RF Humidity/Moisture. Walnuts require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and ventilation conditions (SC VII) (storage climate conditions). Designation Humidity/water content Relative humidity 70% 2 - 8% Water content 5% 5 - 7% 4 - 5% Maximum equilibrium 65% moisture content Precise details should be obtained from the consignor as to the relative humidity to be maintained during the voyage. Moisture damage to both unshelled and shelled walnuts occurs under particularly unfavorable conditions, such as direct contact with rain or by dripping cargo sweat, if the product has not been protected by wooden dunnage, mats or jute coverings. Such protection is also important in order to minimize the risk of rancidity due to contact between the nuts and metal parts of the ship's hull or of the container. Nuts which have been wettened by rain may only be accepted once fully dried. Walnuts have the best color and flavor when their water content is 2 - 8%. A higher water content reduces storage life and increases the risk of rancidity. As is evident from the sorption isotherm for walnuts, these water contents are at equilibrium with comparatively low relative humidities of up to 73%, i.e. below the mold growth threshold of 75%. However, the sorption isotherm then rises sharply at higher values, e.g. at 75% relative humidity, the water content of the walnuts has risen to 14%.
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